Posted on by Agile Adoption in Governmentin
While agile methods have become popular in commercial software development organizations, the engineering disciplines needed to apply agility to mission-critical, software-reliant systems are not as well defined or practiced. To help bridge this gap, the SEI recently hosted the Agile Research Forum. The event brought together researchers and practitioners from around the world to discuss when and how to best apply agile methods in mission-critical environments found in government and many industries.
This blog posting, the fourth installment in a multi-part series highlighting research presented during the forum, summarizes a talk by James Over, manager of the Team Software Process (TSP)initiative, who advocated the building of self-managed teams, planning and measuring project process, designing before building, and making quality the top priority, among other principles associated with applying agile methods at-scale.
Over's Talk on Balancing Agility and Discipline
In his opening comments to the audience, Over shared his views on agility and discipline and stressed the importance of finding a balance between the two. Over said that his presentation and research on combining agility and discipline is based on his work with software teams and software projects, although it is applicable to other fields.
One of the reasons that agile methods are so popular today is their ability to respond to change. As evidence of this popularity, Over pointed out that about 40 percent of software developers use one or more agile methods, compared with 13 percent that only use traditional methods, according to a 2010 Dr. Dobbs survey on trends among global developers.
One reason that agile methods have become so popular is that the pace of change is accelerating. Organizations are seeking solutions that will allow them to become more responsive to change. Agile methods provide some key parts of that capability, Over said.
Balance is key for organizations seeking to implement agile methods. While organizations work to improve agility, they must do so in a disciplined way. Discipline is particularly important for organizations like DoD acquisition programs and other federal agencies developing large, mission-critical software-reliant systems at scale.
It's important for organizations to understand what is meant by agility. While several definitions exist, Over stated one he likes: Agility is responding rapidly and efficiently to change with consistency. An agile business, he told the audience, should be able to respond quickly to change, make decisions quickly, and respond quickly to customers' needs every single time, not just occasionally.
What Does Agile Look Like
Many software organizations claim to be agile because they follow agile principles, but they often lack an understanding of what it means to be agile. To achieve a greater understanding of agile methods, Over recommended that organizations measure their agility and evaluate their success along the following factors:
Impediments to Agility in Software
In 2010, the authors of the Agile Manifesto reunited to hold a retrospective on Agile. Examining the state of the practice in the last decade, the authors identified 10 impediments to achieving agility. From that list, Over identified the following five impediments that he deemed critical for organizations to overcome when they seek to making agile methods work in practice:
Avoiding the Impediments by Balancing Agility and Discipline
Over next identified work that he and other SEI researchers have conducted to remedy the impediments to agility described above. Over's work with software teams has focused on identifying a set of principles that teams should adopt to improve agility and response time. Over highlighted the following five principles that help address impediments identified by the Agile community in their retrospective:
In summary, Over told the audience that in working on 20 different projects in 13 organizations to implement these disciplined agile principles, SEI researchers found that organizations delivered more functionality than originally planned or finished ahead of schedule. Among the other benefits, Over stated, was that projects realized test costs of less than 7 percent of the total cost with an average cost of quality of only 17 percent. Also, the projects delivered software with an average of only six defects in 100,000 lines of new and modified code.
Finally, discipline is the key to agility, Over explained, adding that agility can only be achieved when everyone in an organization acts professionally and uses a disciplined, measured approach to their work.
The first posting in this series summarized discussions by Anita Carleton, director of the SEI's Software Engineering Process Management Program, and Teri Takai, chief information officer for the DoD. Carleton provided an overview of the forum and discussed areas where SEI work is focused on applying Agile methods at-scale. Takai then discussed how Agile methods have been introduced into the DoD software acquisition and development environment. The second posting summarized discussions by Mary Ann Lapham, a senior researcher in the SEI's Acquisition Support Program, who highlighted the importance of collaboration with end users, as well as among cross-functional teams, to facilitate the adoption of Agile approaches into DoD acquisition programs. The third posting highlighted the forum presentation by Ipek Ozkaya, a senior researcher in the SEI's Research, Technology, and System Solutions Program, who discussed the use of strategic, intentional decisions to incur architectural technical debt. The technical debt metaphor describes the tradeoff between taking shortcuts in software development to speed up product delivery and slower--but less risky--software development.
In the next--and final--posting in this series I will summarize my presentation at the forum on the importance of applying agile methods to common operating platform environments (COPEs) that have become increasingly important for the DoD. I will explain how these methods can encourage more effective collaboration between users, developers, testers, and certifiers to help the DoD successfully build more integrated, interoperable, and affordable software systems.
We look forward to hearing your thoughts on applying agile at-scale in the comments section below.
To learn more about the Team Software Process (TSP), please visit www.sei.cmu.edu/tsp.
The slides and recordings from the SEI Agile Research Forum can be accessed at