Safety-critical avionics, aerospace, medical, and automotive systems are becoming increasingly reliant on software. Malfunctions in these systems can have significant consequences including mission failure and loss of life. So, they must be designed, verified, and validated carefully to ensure that they comply with system specifications and requirements and are error free. In the automotive domain, for example, cars contain many electronic control units (ECU)--today's standard vehicle can contain up to 30 ECUs--that communicate to control systems such as airbag deployment, anti-lock brakes, and power steering.
Government agencies, including the departments of Defense, Veteran Affairs, and Treasury, are being asked by their government program office to adopt Agile methods. These are organizations that have traditionally utilized a "waterfall" life cycle model (as epitomized by the engineering "V" charts). Programming teams in these organizations are accustomed to being managed via a series of document-centric technical reviews that focus on the evolution of the artifacts that describe the requirements and design of the system rather than its evolving implementation, as is more common with Agile methods. Due to these changes, many struggle to adopt Agile practices. For example, acquisition staff often wonder how to fit Agile measurement practices into their progress tracking systems.
To deliver enhanced integrated warfighting capability at lower cost across the enterprise and over the lifecycle, the Department of Defense (DoD) must move away from stove-piped solutions and towards a limited number of technical reference frameworks based on reusable hardware and software components and services. There have been previous efforts in this direction, but in an era of sequestration and austerity, the DoD has reinvigorated its efforts to identify effective methods of creating more affordable acquisition choices and reducing the cycle time for initial acquisition and new technology insertion. This blog posting is part of an ongoing series on how acquisition professionals and system integrators can apply Open Systems Architecture (OSA)practices to decompose large monolithic business and technical designs into manageable, capability-oriented frameworks that can integrate innovation more rapidly and lower total ownership costs. The focus of this posting is on the evolution of DoD combat systems from ad hoc stovepipes to more modular and layered architectures.
The verification and validation of requirements are a critical part of systems and software engineering. The importance of verification and validation (especially testing) is a major reason that the traditional waterfall development cycle underwent a minor modification to create the V modelthat links early development activities to their corresponding later testing activities. This blog post introduces three variants on the V model of system or software development that make it more useful to testers, quality engineers, and other stakeholders interested in the use of testing as a verification and validation method.
The size and complexity of aerospace software systems has increased significantly in recent years. When looking at source lines of code (SLOC), the size of systems has doubled every four years since the mid 1990s, according to a recent SEI technical report. The 27 million SLOC that will be produced from 2010 to 2020 is expected to exceed $10 billion. These increases in size and cost have also been accompanied by significant increases in errors and rework after a system has been deployed. Mismatched assumptions between hardware, software, and their interactions often result in system problems that are detected only after the system has been deployed when rework is much more expensive to complete.
Occasionally this blog will highlight different posts from the SEI blogosphere. Today we are highlighting a post from the CERT/CC Blog by Timur Snoke, a member of the technical staff in the SEI's CERT Division. This post describes maps that Timur has developed using Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) routing tables to show the evolution of public-facing autonomous system numbers (ASN). These maps help analysts inspect the BPG routing tables to reveal disruptions to an organization's infrastructure. They also help analysts glean geopolitical information for an organization, country, or a city-state, which helps them identify how and when network traffic is subverted to travel nefarious alternative paths to place communications deliberately at risk.
As cyber-physical systems continue to proliferate, the ability of cyber operators to support armed engagements (kinetic missions) will be critical for the Department of Defense (DoD) to maintain a technological advantage over adversaries. However, current training for cyber operators focuses...