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The Latest Research in Software Engineering and Cybersecurity

Software is a growing component of systems used by Department of Defense (DoD), government, and industry organizations. As organizations become more dependent on software, security-related risks to their organizational missions are also increasing. Despite this rise in security risk exposure, most organizations follow a familiar pattern when managing those risks.

Legacy systems represent a massive operations and maintenance (O&M) expense. According to a recent study, 75 percent of North American and European enterprise information technology (IT) budgets are expended on ongoing O&M, leaving a mere 25 percent for new investments. Another study found nearly three quarters of the U.S. federal IT budget is spent supporting legacy systems. For decades, the Department of Defense (DoD) has been attempting to modernize about 2,200 business systems, which are supported by billions of dollars in annual expenditures that are intended to support business functions and operations.

This post was co-authored by Bill Nichols.


Mitre's Top 25 Most Dangerous Software Errors is a list that details quality problems, as well as security problems. This list aims to help software developers "prevent the kinds of vulnerabilities that plague the software industry, by identifying and avoiding all-too-common mistakes that occur before software is even shipped." These vulnerabilities often result in software that does not function as intended, presenting an opportunity for attackers to compromise a system.

For two consecutive years, organizations reported that insider crimes caused comparable damage (34 percent) to external attacks (31 percent), according to a recent cybercrime report co-sponsored by the CERT Division at the Carnegie Mellon University Software Engineering Institute. Despite this near parity, media reports of attacks often focus on external attacks and their aftermath, yet an attack can be equally or even more devastating when carried out from within an organization. Insider threats are influenced by a combination of technical, behavioral, and organizational issues and must be addressed by policies, procedures, and technologies. Researchers at the CERT Insider Threat Center define insider threat as actions by an individual who meets the following criteria:

In 2014, approximately 1 billion records of personably identifiable information were compromised as a result of cybersecurity vulnerabilities. In the face of this onslaught of compromises, it is important to examine fundamental insecurities that CERT researchers have identified and that readers of the CERT/CC bloghave found compelling. This post, the first in a series highlighting CERT resources available to the public including blogs and vulnerability notes, focuses on the CERT/CC blog. This blog post highlights security vulnerability and network security resources to help organizations in government and industry protect against breaches that compromise data.

In Department of Defense (DoD) programs, cooperation among software and system components is critical. A system of systems (SoS) is used to accomplish a number of missions where cooperation among individual systems is critical to providing (new) capabilities that the systems could not provide. SoS capabilities are a major driver in the architecture of the SoS and selection of constituent systems for the SoS. There are additional critical drivers, however, that must be accounted for in the architecture that significantly impact the behavior of the SoS capabilities, as well as the development and sustainment of the SoS and its constituent systems' architectures. These additional drivers are the quality attributes, such as performance, availability, scalability, security, usability, testability, safety, training, reusability, interoperability, and maintainability. This blog post, the first in a series, introduces the Mission Thread Workshop (MTW), and describes the role that it plays in assisting SoS programs to elicit and refine end-to-end SoS mission threads augmented with quality attribute considerations.

One of the most important and widely discussed trends within the software testing community is shift left testing, which simply means beginning testing as early as practical in the lifecycle. What is less widely known, both inside and outside the testing community, is that testers can employ four fundamentally-different approaches to shift testing to the left. Unfortunately, different people commonly use the generic term shift left to mean different approaches, which can lead to serious misunderstandings. This blog post explains the importance of shift left testing and defines each of these four approaches using variants of the classic V model to illustrate them.